Caffeine and PER

Caffeine enhances memory of honey bees (click for legend)

Memory recall test for odors at 10 min (white bars) or 24 hours (red bars) after bees had been trained. Bright red bars indicate that the response at 24 hours was significantly different from the control (0.7 M sucrose); dark red bars were not significantly different. Nectar levels of caffeine are indicated by hatching. N >79 foreach group. From Wright et al., 2013

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