Frequency distribution of subfamilies.

Tertile distribution of subfamilies, grouped by worker abundance. Subfamilies from each colony separated into three equal groups (common, medium, and rare) based on worker (grey) abundance, allowing for comparison across colonies with unequal numbers of subfamilies. Emergency queens (black) paired with corresponding worker subfamilies. Observed worker and emergency queen populations are significantly different (p<0.0001, Fisher’s exact test). From

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