Copyright and caveats

The following points apply to all of the content on this site. They are gathered here onto a single page to stop me having to repeat myself …


Unless otherwise specified and credited, all text and images are:

Copyright © 2013 – 2022 David J. Evans. All rights reserved.

If you want to use my images on your own website, Twitter or Instagram account (or anywhere else), or to reproduce some or all of the text on your own website, in your beekeeping newsletter or elsewhere, please have the courtesy to contact me first.

Geography and climate

I usually live and work in Fife on the East coast of Scotland. Most of the comments regarding beekeeping and geography or climate should be read with this in mind. Our latitude and longitude is approximate 56.3°N, -3.2°W.

Fife is defined as temperate and oceanic and classified as Cfb according to the Köppen-Geiger system. Annual rainfall is ~700mm, with no months being significantly wetter or drier than others. The average annual temperature is about 9°C, with winter lows averaging ~2°C (and ground frosts about one night in three) and summer highs averaging ~17°C.

It’s a lovely place to live and keep bees 😉

Oxalic acid (OA) treatment

Use of the generic term “oxalic acid (OA) treatment” (or similar) indicates the application of an oxalic acid-containing chemical, vapour or solution to the colony. It does not further qualify the type or make of oxalic acid, unless otherwise specified. It should be noted that only medicines approved by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate should be used when treating honey bee colonies and that records of batch numbers and treatments applied should be maintained. At the time of writing (January 2019) the only approved oxalic acid-containing treatments were Api-Bioxal, Dany’s BienenWohl Powder, Oxuvar and Oxybee.